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When I was asked to support a federal lawsuit that says Detroit’s deteriorating schools were having a negative impact on students’ ability to learn, the decision was a no-brainer.

当我被要求支持一项联邦诉讼,称底特律日益恶化的学校对学生的学习能力产生了负面影响时,我毫不犹豫地做出了这个决定。

Detroit’s schools are so old and raggedy that last year the city’s schools chief, Nikolai Vitti, ordered the water shut off across the district due to lead and copper risks from antiquated plumbing. By mid-September, elevated levels of copper and lead were confirmed in 57 of 斗气王妃十五岁86 schools tested.

底特律的学校年久神探007的博客失修,脏乱不堪,以至于该市的学校校长尼古拉维蒂(Nikolai Vitti)去年下令关闭整个学区的供水,原因是陈旧的水管可能会带来铅和铜的风险。截至9月中旬,在接受检测的86所学校中,有57所学校的铜和铅含量有所上升。

“The conditions and outcomes of Plaintiffs’ schools, as alleged, are nothing short of devastating,” U.S. District Court Judge Stephen J. Murphy III wrote. “When a child who could be taught to read goes untaught, the child suffers a lasting injury – and so does society.”

美国地方法院法官斯蒂芬j墨菲三世(Stephen J. Murphy III)写道:“原告学校的条件和结果,正如所称的那样,简直是毁灭性的。”

“如果一个本来可以学习阅读的孩子没有受到教育,这个孩子就会遭受持周新春易学网久的伤害——社会也梦鸽儿子是如此。”

But Judge Murphy found that the “deplorable and unsafe conditions” that deny children access to literacy were not shown to stem from “irrational” decisions of the State. The case has been appealed to the U.S. 6th Circuit.

但墨菲法官发现,剥夺儿童受教育机会的“可悲和不安全的条件”并不表明来自国家的“非理性”决定。此案已被上诉至美国第六巡回法院。

A nationwide problem

一个全国性的问题

Detroit’s dilemma is not unique. Before I became a professor of educational leadership and policy, I served as assistant state superintendent for research and policy in the Michigan Department of Education. I know a thing or two about how poor school facil体悟道ities can have an effect on student learning. One recent study, for instance, foun广州优创电子有限公司d that in schools without air conditioning, for every one Fahrenheit degree increase in school year temperature, the amount learned that year goes down by 1 percent.

底特律的困境并非独一无二。在我成为教育领导与政策教授之前,我曾在密歇根州教育厅担任研究与政策助理总监。我对学校设施差如何影响学生学习略知一二。例如,最近的一项研究发现,在没有空调的学校里,学年温度每上升1华氏度,当年学到的东西就会减少1%。

“The school has no air conditioning. On hot days classroom temperatures climb into the 90s,” the lawsuit stated in reference to th上海普天智绿新能源技术有限公司e grim conditions at Luther Burbank middle school in San Francisco. “The school heating system does not work well. In winter, children often wear coats, hats, and gloves during class to keep warm.”

“学校没有空调。在炎热的日子里,教室里的温度会攀升到90多华氏度(约32摄乳王氏度)”

“学校的供暖系统不太好。冬天,孩子们经常在上课时穿外套、戴帽子和手套来保暖。”

A similar situation happened in Baltimore’s public schools in January 2018, when the city’s schools were closed after parents and educators complained that students were being exposed to frigid conditions that the local teachers union described as “inhumane.”

2018年1月,巴尔的摩市的公立学校也发生了类似的情况。当时,家长和教育工作者抱怨学生被暴露在寒冷的环境中,当地教师工会称这种环境“不人道”,导致该市的学校停课。

A few years ago in the Yazoo County School District in Mississippi, the lights were so old at the high school that maintenance workers couldn’t find replacement bulbs when the lights went out.

几年前,在密西西比州雅祖县学区,学校的灯太旧了,以至于当灯熄灭时,维修人员找不到替换的灯泡。

In Philadelphia, the head of the teachers union recently described the current state of the city’s schools as “untenable.”

在费城,教师工会主席最近将该市学校的现状描述为“不堪一击”。

“From flaking lead paint, asbestos exposure, persistent rodent issues, the presence of mold, and even the lack of heat on bitterly cold days, educators and children in Philadelphia are learning and working in environmentally toxic facilities every day,” Jerry Jordan, president of the Philadelphia Federation of Teachers, wrote in a January op-ed.

费城教师联合会主席杰里乔丹在1月的一篇专栏文章中写道:“从剥落的铅涂料、石棉暴露、持续的啮齿动物问题、霉菌的存在,甚至在严寒的日子里缺乏热量,费城的教育工作者和孩子们每天都在有毒的环境中学习和工作。”

Costs and consequences

成本和后果

Indeed, miserable conditions like these are not only hard on the children. They seriously impair school districts’ ability to retain their most valuable asset – their teachers. Teachers leave their jobs for a variety of reasons, but facility quality is a key男主痴汉 factor.

事实上,像这样悲惨的环境不仅对孩子们来说很艰难。它们严重损害了学区保留其最宝贵资产——教师的能力。教师因各种原因离职,但设施质量是一个关键因素。

Addressing the infrastructure needs of America’s public schools will be costly. However, continuing to ignore them would be even more costly. The educational impact of substandard facilities on students cannot be overstated. For example, at one elementary school in the Detroit “right to literacy” case that I supported, not a single sixth-grade student could read at a minimally proficient level. Perhaps poor facilities can’t be blamed entirely for the low reading ability at this particular school – but those conditions are still a potential factor.

满足美国公立学校的基础设施需求将耗资巨大。然而,继续忽视它们将付出更大的代价。不合格设施对学生的教育影响怎么强调也不过分。例如,在我支持的底特律“读写权”案中,在一所小学,没有一个六年级的学生能够达到最低熟练程度的阅读。也许,这所学校的阅读能力低下不能完全归咎于糟糕的设施,但这些条件仍然是一个潜在的因素。

Who should pay for it?

谁应该为此买单?

Funding for public education, including school facilities, is primarily a state and local matter. But while most states have tried to help poor local districts with basic operating expenses – such as paying teachers and buying supplies and materials – state support for school infrastructure has been much less reliable.

公共教育的资金,包括学校设施,主要是州和地方事务。但是,尽管大多数州都试图用基本的运营开支来帮助贫困地区,比如支付教师工资和购买物资,但州政府对学校基础设施的支持却远没有那么可靠。

The $100 billion investment would also stimulate property values in communities where schools would be fixed. For all those reasons and more, passage of this bill should be a no-brainer.

这1000亿美元的投资还将刺激学校所在社区的房地产价值。出于所有这些原因以及更多的原因,通过这项法案应该是一件无需动脑筋的事情。

评论翻译

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Brian Jarvis

Across our state (Ohio) - I’m most familiar with school districts in our region (Dayton) - less affluent scho强攻美受ol districts receive significantly more total funding than do more affluent school districts (especially along lines of race). In every instance, combined funding of local + state + federal tax dollars received by less affluent school districts dwarfs that of more affluent districts. (Less affluent districts are subsidized by state & federal dollars up to 80%; more affluent districts are capped at 25%.)I’m unfamiliar with other states’ situations. But in this area of Ohio the excuse of a funding disparity (whether it be by affluence or race) has no substance.

在我们整个州(俄亥俄州)——我最熟悉地区的学区(代顿)——不太富裕的学区获得的总资金明显高于更富裕的学区(尤其是在种族方面)。在每一个例子中,不太富裕的学区从地方+州+联邦税收中获得的资金加起来都超过了更富裕的学区。(不太富裕的地区最高可获得州及联邦政府高达80床戏范冰冰%的补贴;较为富裕的地区上限为25%。)我不熟悉其他州的情况。但在俄亥俄州的这一地区,资金差距的借口(无论是由于富裕还是种族)没有任何实质意义。

Joe Jackson

logged in via Facebook

The physical resources have been shortchanged as more scho曲靖天气预报,torrentkitty,贵州旅游攻略ol district money gets spent on pensions & health care. That’s just a basic reality in most places, simple math.

But there are also places in the country where the nicest and newest buildings around are the schools. I’ve been through some rural counties with high levels of poverty, crumbling housing stock, where the schools are relatively shiny and new.

由于更多的学区资金被用于养老金和医疗保健,学校的物质资源受到了短缺。在大多数地方,这只是一个基本的事实,简单的数学。

但是在这个国家也有一些地方,周围最好和最新的建筑是学校。我去过一些贫困率很高的农村县,那里的住房存量不断减少,学校也相对比较新。

Christopher Anderson(回复楼上)

yes. and many districts build a $26 million sports facility.

It depends upon the district. Many states have Robin Hood laws where the money from rich districts are diverted to李承孝 poor ones. and the wealthy districts still do better than the poor ones. Wonder why???

是的。许多地区修建了耗资2600万美元的体育设施。这取决于地区。许多州都有罗宾汉法,把富人区的钱转到穷人区。而且富人区仍然比穷人区做得好。想知道为什么吗? ? ?

dustin rogers

logged in via Google

Agree with the other comments. 陈宝柱Texas Inner city schools get plenty of funding, but no amount of money can change the atmosphere and horrible situations at home. Until society begins placing import of 2 parent households, teenagers will continue to have babies at 15/16/17 and continue the cycle of single parent homes. There is nothing the government or administrations can do to drastically improve student performance until the home social issues begin to improve.

同意其他评论。德州内城的学校得到了大量同性恋老头的资助,但是再多的钱也无法改变家里的气氛和可怕的情况。在社会开始引入双亲家庭之前,厉北爵池恩恩免费阅读青少年将继续在15/16/17生育孩子,并继续单亲家庭的循环。在家庭社会问题开始改善之前,政府或管理部门都无法大幅改善学生的表现。

Natalia Garceau

logged in via Google

I think we have a gr卡格妮琳恩卡特eat opportunity here to teach kids a lot of REAL WORLD, real life, useful and practical skills like assessing buildings, writing reports, using critical thinking, creative problem solving, grant writing, legislature, fundraising, financial management, not to mention science, sustainability, architecture and design, construction etc. We talk about innovations in education, about creation of learning organizations, and collaboration of schools, community, universities, businesses, NGO’s and legislature. We talk the talk, but we don’t walk母子恋情 the walk.

我认为我们在这里有一个很好的机会教孩子们很多真实的世界,真实的生活,有用的和实用的技能,比如评估建筑物,写报告,运用批判性思维,创造性地解决问题,拨款写作,立法,筹款,财务管理,更不用说科学,可持续发展,建筑和设计,建造等等。我们讨论教育创新,创建学习型组织,以及学校、社区、大学、企业、非政府组织和立法机构之间的合作。然而我们只说不做。

Do we actually want to EMPOWER students? Only by being involved in all of the school related decisions and processes, will students actually take charge of their own education and their own future. It would take a big step out of the comfort zo户太十号ne and involve risk, but therwise we’ll be stuck with the same problems that we try to solve using the same old-fashioned way of looking at things instead of seeing this as opportunity for innovation, keeping kids at their desks and reading about pollution, po袁东操新浪博客verty etc. instead of fixing the problems.

我们真的想增强学生的能力吗?只有参与所有与学校有关的决策和过程,学生才能真正掌握自己的教育和自己的未来。这将是走出舒适区的一大步,涉及到风险,但否则我们将陷入同样的问题,我们试图用同样的老式方式来解决问题,而不是把这看作是创新的机会,让孩子呆在办公桌前,阅读关于污染、贫困等问题的书籍。而不是解决问题。